This innovative study of the southwestern Peloponnese or Morea combines the study of unpublished Ottoman documents, other historical sources, and the results of archaeological fieldwork to explore the historical and economic geography of a particular region of Greece in the early 18th century, the period immediately following the Ottoman reconquest of this region from Venice. Central to the book is a translation of the section of an Ottoman cadastral survey (defter) listing in great detail properties in the district (kaza) of Anavarin (Navarino, modern Pylos). An introductory chapter outlines the history and methodology of the research project, while the translation is followed by chapters that provide a broader context, drawing on other sources for the information contained in the document and the principles behind its composition. A final chapter summarizes the conclusions drawn from the research, and a series of appendixes offer additional detail, including concordances of the personal- and place-names, an index of properties described, narrative histories of the two fortresses in the region, and a new English translation of the Anavarin section of the 17th-century Turkish traveler Evliya Celebi’s Travel Book (Seyahatname). A facsimile of the document itself and color versions of all illustrations are provided as online supplements.